Most people are aware of the harm that smoking causes to the heart and lungs. Fifty years ago the U.S. Surgeon General released the landmark report linking tobacco use and lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. Since then, cardiologists, pulmonologists, and primary-care physicians have helped to educate the public about the risks. However, the negative effects of tobacco smoking on the musculoskeletal system – the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments in the body – are not as well-known.
Nicotine and other toxins in tobacco smoke contribute to constriction of the blood vessels and decrease the blood flow to all parts of the body. All organ systems require adequate blood flow, oxygen, and nutrition in order to remain alive and healthy – including bones. After an injury or surgery, the body requires proper blood flow in order to heal the area.
People who smoke tobacco have an increased risk of fracture due to decreased bone mineral density or osteoporosis. Broken bones in the wrist, hip, and spine are more common in these patients. Additionally, smokers sometimes can take twice as long or longer to heal their fractures. In some patients, the bone does not have enough blood flow to heal, which can result in a painful “non-union.” Fractures of the scaphoid bone in the wrist and the tibia in the lower leg are more prone to these complications.
Smokers also have a higher risk of rotator cuff tears, lumbar spine disc herniation, and have more complications after orthopaedic surgery than non-smokers. The risk of wound healing problems and infections after surgery is more than double in smokers. Delayed healing has been reported in spine fusion surgery, hip and knee joint replacement surgery, Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction, foot surgery, and hand surgery, among others.
Over time, tobacco smoking can cause peripheral vascular disease, or hardening of the arteries, resulting in chronic ulcers in the fingers and toes. Amputations of the fingers or legs can be an unfortunate end-result from this disease.
Thankfully, there has been a decline in tobacco use in the United States since the 1964 Surgeon General report. Even in North Carolina, where tobacco was king, there has been an obvious decrease in cigarette smoking over the years. Various efforts to reduce tobacco use have helped, but we have a long way to go. Currently over 40 million Americans are estimated to smoke, and tobacco use is still the leading cause of preventable death in the United States.
If you or a loved one uses tobacco products, please talk to your primary care doctor about smoking cessation. Nicotine is a very addicting drug, and many patients need help to kick the habit. Choose to quit now – it may be the most important health decision you will make!